Two areas of corrosion occur in pipe lines: corrosion from the medium carried inside the pipes; corrosion attack upon the outside of the pipes underground corrosion. Electrolytic processes are also involved in underground corrosion.
Here the moisture content of the soil acts as an electrolyte, and the ions required to conduct the current are supplied by water-soluble salts chlorides, sulfates, etc.
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The nature and amount of these cv natural slimming indonezia materials can vary within a wide range, which is seen from the varying electrical conductivity and pH cv natural slimming indonezia between 3 and Therefore the characteristics of a soil will be an important factor in under-ground corrosion.
Key words: corrosion, electrolytic, pipe line.
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Introduction On buried pipe lines the following principal types of corrosion will 2. Corrosion Resulting from Oxygen Content. Oxygen from the atmosphere or from oxidizing salts tends to form oxides with metals.
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If these oxides are soluble the corrosion attack is greatly accelerated, if these corrosion products are insoluble, they may reduce corrosion by forming a protective layer; on the other hand they will increase the corrosion attack if they are nobler than the bare metal. Corrosion also may be promoted by oxygen concentration cells when a pipe line passes through soils of different oxygen content.
The potential along a pipe line depends to some extent on the soluble salt content of the soil. It is found that sections of a pipe line passing through soil of high salt content are anodic to sections about which the alt content of the soil is lower Fig.
This is a typical galvanic corrosion. Stray Current Corrosion Electrolysis. It arises in the following way: electric current from a D. The current through the consumer is completed by a return rail connected to earth Fig.
While the conductivity of the rail is much higher than that of the earth, a portion of the return current is still diverted into the earth.
This current, through the earth, will readily pass through any metallic conductor, Bul. Iaşi, t.
Where the electron flow begins in the pipe-line an anodic reaction corrosion takes place, and where the electron flow ends in the pipe and the electrical conduction is resumed by the earth there is a cathodic protective reaction. Corrosion Supported by Bacteria. Corrosion is also observed in absence of oxygen when sulfatereducing cv natural slimming indonezia are present.
These bacteria are found in soils, deep wells, and seawater.
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By their metabolic processes they are capable of depolarizing cathodic areas. Corrosion attacks initiated by such bacteria may rapidly lead to destruction of piping.
In cast iron pipes a type of corrosion is occasionally observed which is called graphitization. Herein a great part of the metallic matrix is removed from the affected zones, leaving behind a black porous structure, which may retain the shape of the original, metal but lacks its strength.
The graphite embedded in the metallic matrix acts as a cathode, and the metal as an anode. This phenomenon is seldom observed except in highly aggressive soils and is a result of stray currents or electrical currents due to the potential differences set up in soils of varying properties through which the pipe line happens to pass see below.
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The relative corrosion resistance of a large number of metals commonly used for piping, buried for protracted lengths of time in a number of soils over the country. The corrosivity of various soils differs greatly, and because of the scatter of results caused by many factors for which the references cited should be studied only the roughest generalization can be made in a limited space.
It has been demonstrated that none of the commonly used ferrous metals such as open-hearth steel, wrought iron, Bessemer steel, plain carbon steel, pit cast iron and centrifugally cast iron are immune to corrosion in all of the soils, and that in the same soil these materials corrode at nearly the same rate. In low-alloy steels, as compared with plain steels, the initial rate of weight loss is lower, but the initial rate of pitting is higher.
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Except the very poorly aerated and reducing group of soils, the rate of pitting diminishes with time more rapidly for the alloy steels than for plain steels. Higher alloy steels with high chromium content are observed to have deeper pits than plain steel in most of the soils. The tendency of high concentrations of chromium to accelerate pitting appears to be neutralized by adding sufficient nickel to produce austenitic steels such as typewhich are found to be wholly resistant to corrosion.
Also austenitic cast irons are considerably more resistant to corrosion than plain cast iron. Galvanizing substantially improves the corrosion resistance of buried steel.
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A zinc coat of 2 oz. Rubber and rubber-like coatings afford complete protection. The same is true in steel pipes coated with porcelain enamel.
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Protection of Underground Pipe Lines In highly aggressive soils it is recommended to apply special coatings to the pipes or employ other methods of corrosion prevention.
Before about underground pipe lines were protected from corrosion almost exclusively by the application of coatings, usually bituminous. Later this was displaced by the application of cathodic protection, frequently together with a protective coating.
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In this case the cathodic protection consists of impressing an electromotive force on an underground pipe line or structure to keep it cathodic with respect to the ground. Where a convenient D. Coatings used to provide corrosion protection to underground pipe lines show different resistance to microbiological deterioration. Whereas the corrosion inside the pipes must always be considered, an appreciable outside attack is rarely found except in subterranean pipe lines buried in aggressive soils.
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LaQue F. Testing Materials, 51 Evans U. Uhlig H. Powell S. Acest proces de coroziune subpământeană este, printre altele, favorizat şi de anumite fenomene electrolitice. În acest caz, umiditatea din sol joacă rolul de electrolit iar ionii care realizează transportul de curent sunt generaţi de dizolvarea sărurilor prezente în sol cloruri, sulfuri, etc.
Tipul şi cantitatea acestor săruri pot varia foarte mult, lucru ce se poate observa din încadrarea măsurătorilor privind conductivitatea şi pH-ul între 3 şi 10 intr-o plajă largă de valori.
Se poate concluziona că natura şi proprietăţile solului sunt factori importanţi în ceea ce priveşte coroziunea subterană.